My name is Duncan Shaw. I am the author of this website and the papers and articles referred to below. For my background, click HERE.

What is the physical cause of gravity? This age-old question has not yet been answered with a theory that has gained general acceptance in the scientific community. Newton provided the mathematics for the calculation of gravity, but not the physical mechanics of what causes it. Einstein added a form of geometry that amended how gravitational force is calculated, but did not provide the mechanics of its cause.

What is the underlying physical reality of electromagnetic phenomena? Does the concept of aether, as envisioned by Maxwell, provide a rational explanation of electromagnetic phenomena? Does it provide the missing physical reality to quantum mechanics?

This website provides access to papers and articles I have authored that propose a mechanical concept of the cause of gravity. It also gives access to papers I have written on the underpinnings of electromagnetism, as well asthe cause or causes of inertia, the structure of matter and the phenomenon of entanglement.


The cause-of-gravity concept proposes that a sub-atomic substance called aether flows into and out of cosmic bodies and, in doing so, exerts ram force on all atomic matter it encounters. The force exerted by aether that is flowing into cosmic bodies is greater than the force exerted by outflowing aether. The net difference in transferred momentum is the force of gravity. Inflowing aether consists of groups (droplets) of aether cells that have condensed together in space, much like water molecules condense into droplets in our atmosphere. Outflowing aether consists of separate individual aether cells. Inflowing droplets are of much greater size than outflowing cells and therefore have a greater level of probability of colliding with the structure of atoms. The net difference accounts for why gravity is experienced as a one-way force.

To picture the process, it is helpful to think of our rain cycle on Earth: the evaporation of water molecules that rise into the atmosphere; condensation of the molecules into droplets; and the return of rain to the Earth’s surface.

One characteristic of gravity is that it is an accelerating force. The proposed gravity concept provides a simple explanation for what causes the acceleration. The cause is convergence of inflowing aether as it proceeds from the wide expanse of space into the relatively tiny area occupied by a cosmic body. An analog is a river accelerating as it flows into a narrow canyon. Another analog: Put your hand in the vicinity of an ordinary vacuum cleaner and you can feel the acceleration of the surrounding air as it flows toward the machine.


It is proposed that aether plays a role in electromagnetism. While aether’s part in gravity is that of a flowing substance, much like wind in our atmosphere, aether’s part in electromagnetism is different. It acts as a medium through which waves are transmitted, like sound waves through the atmosphere.


Aether is posited as a real substance. It consists of aether cells that have the property of elasticity. Aether can flow like a fluid or a gas. This is fundamental to the cause-of-gravity concept. Aether cells can vibrate and can transmit vibrations by interactions with neighboring cells. In this manner, aether acts as a medium through which electromagnetic waves can be transmitted.


My work now includes the cause or causes of inertia, the structure of matter and the phenomenon of entanglement.


The articles and papers listed below set out my ideas and reasoning in regard to the cause of gravity, the underpinnings of electromagnetism, the existence and description of aether, the tie between gravity and electromagnetism, the cause or causes of inertia, the structure of atoms and the phenomenon of entanglement. Four of the articles have been published in Physics Essays and they have all been peer reviewed. The other papers have been presented to conferences and are published in the proceedings of the conferences.

The posting of the Physics Essays articles on this website is with the permission of Physics Essays Publications, the owner of the copyright of those articles. The official website of Physics Essays Publication is http://physicsessays.org.


Physics Essays Articles:

The Cause Of Gravity: A Concept, Phys. Essays 25, 66 (2012)

This article argues that gravity is caused by the force of aether cells flowing into cosmic bodies and colliding with atomic matter, less the force of individual particles that make up aether cells flowing from cosmic bodies back into space. The fact that gravity is a one-way force is explained by inflowing aether cells being larger than the outflowing particles and therefore more likely to collide with the structure of atomic matter.

Flowing Aether: A Concept, Phys. Essays 26, 523 (2013)

This article focuses upon the flow aspect of the cause-of-gravity concept. It also proposes a change to the explanation of gravity as a one-way force. Instead of inflow consisting of aether cells and outflow consisting of constituent particles, the article proposes that incoming aether is made up of groups of aether cells and outflow is made up of individual aether cells. The proposition that inflowing entities are larger than outflowing entities (whatever they may be) remains as the explanation of gravity being a one-way force.

Reconsidering Maxwell’s Aether, Phys. Essays 27, 601 (2014)

This article argues that aether as described by James Clerk Maxwell in his 1865 treatise, The Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field, provides a basis for explaining, in mechanical terms, numerous electromagnetic phenomena.

Outflowing Aether, Phys. Essays 29, 4 (2016)

This article deals with the outflow of aether into space. It proposes that aether cells proceed into space by way of convection and buoyancy. It considers as an analog the evaporation of water molecules into the atmosphere and their return to Earth as rain.

Other papers: (The copyright to these papers is my own.)

Unity Between Gravitational and Electromagnetic Forces: A Concept, Proceedings of the NPA, Albuquerque, NM (2012), Vol. 9, p.1.

This paper argues that aether is the common denominator of both gravity and electromagnetism.

On the Cause or Causes of Inertia, Proceedings of the JCNPS, (2015), Vol.1, p.109.

This paper contends that the phenomenon of inertia emanates from vibrations in the structure of Atoms. Based upon the fact that rotating flywheels resist being pushed off-line, it is reasoned that each vibrating part of an atom likewise resists off-line movements. As the lines of vibrations in atoms are in all directions, the net result is a general resistance to movement.

On the Structure of Atoms, Proceedings of the JCNPS, (2015), Vol.1, p. 109.

This paper contends that atoms are physically (mechanically) structured and that energy within atoms consists of vibrations rather than spin.

Maxwell’s Aether: A Solution to Entanglement, Proceedings of the JCNPS, (2016), Vol. 1, p.112.

This paper addresses the phenomenon of entanglement and the various experiments that have been carried out on entanglement from the 1960s to the present time. It is argued that polarization of the medium within the range of the experiments forces the particles that constitute the medium to collectively assume certain common positions and movements, and that this accounts for the correlated readings that are recorded at the receptors. This approach to entanglement eliminates the need of the patently incorrect instantaneous-action-at-a-distance explanation that is presently offered for the correlated readings.


To visitors to this website: If you wish to make observations or discuss any of the above matters with me, please communicate by email. My email address is duncanshaw@shaw.ca.