My name is Duncan Shaw. I am the author of this website and the papers and articles referred to below. For my background, click HERE.

What is the physical cause of gravity? This age-old question has not yet been answered with a theory that has gained general acceptance in the scientific community. Newton provided the mathematics for the calculation of gravity, but not the physical mechanics of what causes it. Einstein added a form of geometry that amended how gravitational force is calculated, but did not provide the mechanics of its cause. Is flowing aether the cause of gravity?

Is there an  underlying physical medium in which electromagnetic phenomena occur? Is aether, as envisioned by James Clerk Maxwell in 1865, that medium?

What is the missing underlying physical reality of the quantum mechanics theory? Might it be the medium of aether as described by Maxwell?

Does Maxwell's medium of aether provide the setting in which the phenomenon of entanglement occurs?

This website provides access to papers and articles I have authored that propose answers to these and other questions.

The approach I have taken is simple. I assume that all gravitational and electromagnetic phenomena may be explained by ordinary direct physical cause and effect. I apply this approach to a fundamental premise: that there exists a substance, described by James Clerk Maxwell in 1865, that permeates space and the bodies that occupy space. The substance is called aether.

The articles and papers listed below apply this approach to the cause of gravity,  the underpinnings of electromagnetism, the quantum mechanics theory, the phenomenon of entanglement, the cause or causes of inertia, and  the structure of atoms.

My articles have been peer reviewed and published in the journal, Physics Essays. My papers have been presented to conferences and are published in the proceedings of the conferences.

The posting of the Physics Essays articles on this website is with the permission of Physics Essays Publications, the owner of the copyright of those articles. The website Physics Essays Publication is http://physicsessays.org.

To access the papers and articles cited below, click on their titles.


The cause-of-gravity proposal is based upon aether flowing into and out of cosmic bodies. The flows exert ram force (collisional force) on all atomic matter they encounter. The force exerted by inflowing aether is greater than the force exerted by outflowing aether. The net difference is the force of gravity.

The Cause Of Gravity: A Concept, Phys. Essays 25, 66 (2012)
This article proposes that gravity is caused by the force of aether cells flowing into cosmic bodies and colliding with atomic matter, less the force of the constituent particles of aether cells flowing from cosmic bodies back into space. The fact that gravity is a one-way force is explained by inflowing aether cells being larger than the outflowing constituent particles and therefore more likely to collide with the structure of atomic matter. The fact that gravity is an accelerating force is explained by convergence of the flow of aether from the wide expanse of space into the relatively small areas occupied by cosmic bodies. Further, the fact that force of gravity between the Sun and the Earth appears to be instantaneous is explained by the direction of the incoming aether flow from space when it strikes the Earth being directly toward the Sun.

Flowing Aether: A Concept, Phys. Essays 26, 523 (2013)
This article focuses upon the flow aspect of-gravity. It also proposes a change to the explanation of why gravity is a one-way force. Instead of inflow consisting of aether cells and outflow consisting of the particles that comprise aether cells, the article proposes that incoming aether is made up of groups (droplets) of aether cells and outflow is made up of individual aether cells. This proposal is drawn from the rain cycle on Earth (evaporation of water molecules – travel to altitude -- condensation into water droplets – return to the Earth as rain).

Outflowing Aether, Phys. Essays 29, 4 (2016).
This article deals specifically with the outflow of aether into space. It proposes that inflowing aether droplets collide with atomic matter and vaporize into gaseous aether cells and proceed back into space by way of convection and diffusion.

Aether Concept of Gravity, Proceedings of the CNPS, Vol. 3, p. 180 (2017).
This paper summarizes the above-cited gravity papers and sets out, step-by-step, the various interrelated factors in the proposed cause of gravity.


There are certain elements of the cause of gravity proposal – all based upon ordinary cause-and-effect -- that lend it credibility: (1) The difference in size between inflowing droplets and outflowing cells provides a physical explanation of why gravity is a one-way force. (2) The convergence of inflowing aether from space into the relatively small area of a cosmic body provides a physical explanation of why gravity is an accelerating force. Visualize a wide river accelerating into a narrow canyon. (3) The collisions of inflowing aether droplets with atomic matter generates heat that vaporizes the droplets into cells of gaseous aether that absorb the heat. The outflow of gaseous aether carries heat back into space. This prevents a heat build-up that would otherwise destroy bodies such as the Earth; (4) The vaporization of inflowing aether droplets reduces the concentration of aether in its droplet form in the vicinity of cosmic bodies. This causes a concentration imbalance of liquid state aether that causes it to flow toward cosmic bodies. By similar reasoning, the condensation of outflowing gaseous aether in space reduces its concentration in space. The resulting concentration imbalance causes the gaseous state aether to flow from cosmic bodies into space; (5) The cross-flows of the two states of aether are like the cross-flows of two separate kinds of gas, each passing through the other by diffusion, each seeking equilibrium of concentration; (6) The cyclic nature of inflow and outflow accounts for the continuing replenishment of the supply of aether in space and the continuity of the force of gravity; and (7) The inflow concept of gravity explains why the gravitational force between the Sun and the Earth appears to be instantaneous.


It is proposed that the medium of aether plays a fundamental role in electromagnetism. While aether’s part in gravity is that of a flowing substance, aether’s part in electromagnetism is different. It acts as a medium through which waves are transmitted, much like sound waves are transmitted through the medium of our atmosphere. It is proposed that the medium of aether, as described by James Clerk Maxwell in 1865 in his treatise, The Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field, is the setting in which the phenomena of electromagnetism operate. Aether cells have the property of elasticity. This permits aether cells to vibrate and transmit vibrations way of direct interactions with neighboring aether cells.

Reconsidering Maxwell’s Aether, Phys. Essays 27, 601 (2014).
This article contends thataether as described by James Clerk Maxwell in fact exists and that it provides a physical setting – a medium -- in which electromagnetic phenomena occur.


The quantum mechanics theory was developed in the 1920s and is generally accepted by present-day physics for its mathematics. A significant feature of the quantum mechanics theory is that there is not yet a generally accepted physical base that supports the theory. It is proposed that the medium of aether as described by Maxwell provides the missing physical foundation that explains the operation of the quantum mechanics theory.

Entanglement is a phenomenon that has been thoroughly explored by numerous experiments. The experiments have failed to discover the underlying physical cause of entanglement. As with the quantum mechanics theory, it is proposed that the medium of aether as described by Maxwell provides the physical setting that explains entanglement.

Aether Explanation of Entanglement, Phys. Essays 31, No. 1 (2018).
This article proposes that the medium of aether as proposed by James Clerk Maxwell provides the missing physical foundation of the quantum mechanics theory and provides a rational explanation of the phenomenon of entanglement. The article explains why Maxwell’s aether theory has fallen into disuse and provides reasons why Maxwell’s aether theory should be revived.


Unity Between Gravitational and Electromagnetic Forces: A Concept, Proceedings of the NPA, Vol. 9, p.1, (2012).
This paper argues that aether is the common denominator that unites gravity and electromagnetism.


On the Cause or Causes of Inertia, Proceedings of the CNPS, Vol.1, p.109, (2015).
This paper contends that the phenomenon of inertia emanates from vibrations in the structure of Atoms. Based upon the fact that rotating flywheels resist being pushed off-line, it is reasoned that each vibrating part of an atom likewise resists off-line movements. As the lines of vibrations in atoms are in all directions, the net result is a general resistance to movement. The paper also contends that the medium of aether that surrounds and permeates ordinary matter resists the movement of matter and is likely a further cause of inertia.


On the Structure of Atoms, Proceedings of the CNPS, Vol.1, p. 112. (2015).
This paper contends that atoms are physically (mechanically) structured and that energy within atoms consists of vibrations of their structures rather than spin.


To visitors to this website: If you wish to make observations or discuss any of the above matters with me, please communicate by email. My email address is duncanshaw@shaw.ca.